Management Process and Organisation Behavior
Following are the 15 topics/Units we learn in this paper
1. Management Process
2. Introduction & Foundations of Organisational Behavior
3. Learning Ability
4. Value, Attitude & Job Satisfaction
10. Group Behavior
11. Power & Politics
12. Conflict Management
13. Stress Management
14. Organization Change
15. Organization Development
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Here i am trying to create a sample question & answer, which may help students who are not able to attend class, specially for working professionals
Q: What are the groups/ steps in management functions ?
A: Management functions are regrouped into four main functions:
Q: What are the different process involves in management process ?
A : The management process includes : planning, organising, staffing, directing, controlling, deciding and evaluating. Different implications are :
1. Social Process.
2. Integrated Process.
3. Continuous Process.
4. Interactive Process
Q: What is SWOT?
A: SWOT analysis is a simple framework for generating strategic alternatives from a situation analysis, this type of analysis frequently appears in marketing plan.
S – Strengths.
W – Weakness.
O – Opportunities.
T – Threats.
Introduction & Foundations of Organisational Behavior
1. What is Organizational Behaviour?
Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system.
2. What are the elements of Organizational Behaviour?
The organization’s base rests on management’s philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment.
3. What is the purpose of the study of Organizational Behaviour?
Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
4. What are social systems?
A social system is a complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways. Within an organization, the social system includes all the people in it and their relationships to each other and to the outside world. The behavior of one member can have an impact, either directly or indirectly, on the behavior of others. Also, the social system does not have boundaries… it exchanges goods, ideas, culture, etc. with the environment around it.
5. What is Organizational Development?
Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about planned change. Its objectives is a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability, and effectiveness.
1. What is Organizational learning?
Learning is a characteristic of an adaptive organization, i.e., an organization that is able to sense changes in signals from its environment (both internal and external) and adapt accordingly
2. Give the formula for Organizational learning?
Action Learning can be viewed as a formula: [L = P + Q]:
- Learning (L) occurs through a combination of
- programmed knowledge (P) and
- the ability to ask insightful questions (Q).
3. What are bad habits?
Some destructive behaviour patterns that refer to deep-rooted psychological flaws that translates into consistently problematic behaviour. Their bad habits are a central part of their personalities. They create their own glass ceilings, limit their success and their contributions to the company. Sometimes, these bad habits destroy their careers.
4. Who is a meritocrat?
One who believes that the best ideas can and will be determined objectively and thus will always prevail because of their clear merit; ignores the politics inherent in most situations
5. What are the root causes of bad habits?
Bad habits grow out of a mix of an individual’s genes and environmental influences, such as family and peer relationships.
Value, Attitude & Job Satisfaction
1. What are values?
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.
2. What are the types of values?
- Terminal values: Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
- Instrumental values: Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
3. What are attitudes?
Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.
4. What is power distance and cognitive dissonance?
Power distance: A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed equally.
Cognitive dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes.
5. What is the difference between job satisfaction and productivity?
Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
1. What is personality?
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
2. Define extroversion and conscientiousness?
Extroversion: A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive.
Conscientiousness: A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.
3. What is locus of control?
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.
Internals: Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Externals: Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
4. What is type-A personality?
- Are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly
- feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place
- strive to think or do two or more things at once
- cannot cope with leisure time
- are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
5. What is type-B personality?
- Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience
- feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation
- play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost
- can relax without guilt
1. What are emotions and how are they different from moods?
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something are called emotions. Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus are called Moods.
2. What is emotional intelligence?
An assortment of non-cognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person’s ability to succeed in coping with environmental demands and pressures.
3. What is emotional labor?
A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
4. What are felt emotions?
An individual’s actual emotions are called as felt emotions.
5. What are displayed emotions?
Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.
1. What is perception?
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
2. What is attribution theory?
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
3. Explain distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency?
Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations
Consensus: Response is the same as others to same situation
Consistency: Response in the same way over time
4. What is fundamental attribution error?
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others.
5. What is Halo effect?
Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.
1. What is Management by objectives (MBO)?
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.
2. What is employee involvement program?
A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success.
3. Explain Job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment?
Job rotation: The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another.
Job enlargement: The horizontal expansion of jobs
Job enrichment: The vertical expansion of jobs
4. How to motivate employees in the organizations?
- Recognize individual differences
- Use goals and feedback
- Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them
- Link rewards to performance
- Check the system for equity
5. Define flextime and job sharing?
Flextime: Employees work during a common core time period each day but have discretion in forming their total workday from a flexible set of hours outside the core.
Job sharing: The practice of having two or more people split a 40-hour-a-week job.
1. What is leadership?
Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
2. Differentiate trait theory and behavioral theory?
Trait theory: Leaders are born, not made.
Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught.
3. Differentiate employee-oriented leader and production-oriented leader?
Employee oriented leader: Emphasizing interpersonal relations, taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members
Production oriented leader: One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.
4. Who is a development oriented leader?
One who values experimentation, seeking new ideas, and generating and implementing change.
5. What is path-goal theory?
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.
1. What is group?
Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
2. Define different types of groups?
- Formal group: A designated work group defined by the organization structure
- Informal group: A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact
- Command group: A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager
- Interest group: Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
- Task group: Those working together to complete a job task
- Friendship group: Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics
3. Why people join groups?
- Goal achievement
4. What is groupthink?
A phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
5. What is groupshift?
A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
Power & Politics
1. What is power?
A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
2. What are power tactics?
Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Different types of influence tactics are: Legitimacy, rational, inspirational appeals, consultation, exchange, personal appeals, ingratiation, pressure, coalitions.
3. What is political behaviour?
Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization.
4. Distinguish legitimate and illegitimate political behaviour?
Legitimate political behaviour: Normal everyday politics
Illegitimate political behaviour: Extreme political behaviour that violates the implied rules of the game.
5. What are the various employee reactions to organizational politics?
- Decreased job satisfaction
- Increased anxiety and stress
- Increased turnover
- Reduced performance
1. How is conflict defined?
Conflict is the process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
2. What are the types of conflict?
- Task conflict: Conflict over content and goals of work
- Relationship conflict: Conflict based on interpersonal relationships
- Process conflict: Conflict over how work gets done
3. Distinguish between perceived conflict and felt conflict?
Perceived conflict: Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.
Felt conflict: Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.
4. What is conflict management?
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict is called conflict management.
5. What are the various conflict management techniques?
- Problem solving
- Superordinate goals
- Expansion of resources
- Authoritative command
- Altering the human variable
- Altering the structural variable
- Bringing in outsiders
- Restructuring the organization
- Appointing a devil’s advocate
1. Define work stress?
A dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint (or demand) related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
2. What are the potential sources of stress?
- Environmental factors
- Organizational factors
- Individual factors
- Individual differences
3. What are the consequences of stress?
- Physiological symptoms
- Psychological symptoms
- Behavioral symptoms
4. How to manage stress?
- Individual approaches: relaxation, expanding social support network, etc
- Employee counselling
- Organizational approaches: realistic goal setting, increased employee involvement, etc
5. Define constraints and demands?
Constraints are the forces that prevent individuals from doing what they desire.
Demands are loss of something desired.
1. Define change, planned change, and who are change agents?
Change is to make things different. Planned change are activities that are intentional and goal oriented. Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
2. What are the forms of resistance to change?
- Overt and immediate: Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions
- Implicit and deferred: Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors and mistakes, increased absenteeism.
3. How to overcome resistance to change?
- Education and communication
- Facilitation and support
- Manipulation and cooptation
4. Describe Lewin’s change model?
- Unfreezing: Change efforts to overcome pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity.
- Driving forces: Forces that direct behaviour away from the status quo.
- Restraining forces: Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
- Refreezing: Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces.
5. What is action research?
A change process based on systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analysed data indicate.
1. What is organizational development?
A collection of planned interventions, built on humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
2. What is team building?
High interaction among team members to increase trust and openness.
3. What are the various team building activities?
- Goal and priority setting
- Developing interpersonal relations
- Role analysis to each member’s role and responsibilities
- Team process analysis
4. Who are called the idea champions?
Individuals who take an innovation and actively and enthusiastically promote the idea, build support, overcome resistance, and ensure that the idea is implemented.
5. What is a learning organization?
An organization that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change is called as a learning organization.